Study highlights ease of spread of COVID-19 viruses

By |2020-03-21T10:53:44+00:00March 21st, 2020|

COVID-19 can be spread before it causes symptoms, when it produces symptoms like those of the common cold, and as many as 12 days after recovery, according to a virologic analysis of nine infected patients published today on the preprint server medRxiv. Also, in a study published in today’s Annals of Internal Medicine, researchers at Johns Hopkins found a median incubation [...]

CDC urges readiness as US COVID-19 count passes 600

By |2020-03-21T10:53:40+00:00March 21st, 2020|

As COVID-19 cases continue to climb, a CDC official said today at a press conference that most Americans will be exposed to the novel coronavirus this year or next. “We do not expect most people will get a serious illness,” said Nancy Messonnier, MD, the director of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) [...]

Epidemiology study notes diversity of CRE in US hospitals

By |2020-03-21T10:53:36+00:00March 21st, 2020|

A study examining the clinical and molecular epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) in US hospital patients indicates there is greater diversity in CRE than previously thought, a finding that could have implications for how hospitals treat and control the pathogens. The study, published late last week in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, looked at clinical and whole-genome sequencing data [...]

Get Ready for a 1918-like Scenario

By |2020-03-21T10:53:28+00:00March 21st, 2020|

Eric Toner, MD | March 13, 2020 My colleagues and I just submitted to medRxiv a paper on what a Wuhan-like epidemic would do to US ICUs. https://medrxiv.org/cgi/content/short/2020.03.09.20033241v1 The bottom line is that demand would far exceed capacity, and some people in need of critical care would not be able to get it. But it is not [...]

ECDC: COVID-19 not containable, set to overwhelm hospitals

By |2020-03-21T10:53:24+00:00March 21st, 2020|

In a stark and urgent COVID-19 risk assessment update today, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) said that, in a few weeks or even days, other countries in the region may face huge surges that mirror those of China and Italy. It advised countries to quickly shift to mitigation strategies to protect vulnerable people [...]

Secondary attack rate and superspreading events for SARS-CoV-2

By |2020-03-21T10:53:20+00:00March 21st, 2020|

A basic reproduction number, R0, of about 2 was estimated for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China, early in the outbreak. However, this value only captures the average dynamics of transmission; a crucial question for control is whether specific situations and settings might be driving the outbreak. The secondary attack rate [...]

Extract from used Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra cartridges is useful for accurate second-line drug-resistant tuberculosis diagnosis with minimal rpoB-amplicon cross-contamination risk

By |2020-03-21T10:53:14+00:00March 21st, 2020|

Abstract Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Ultra) detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance. Follow-on drug susceptibility testing (DST) requires additional sputum. Extract from the diamond-shaped chamber of the cartridge (dCE) of Ultra’s predecessor, Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert), is useful for MTBDRsl-based DST but this is unexplored with Ultra. Furthermore, whether CE from non-diamond compartments is useful, the performance of FluoroType MTBDR [...]

Screening of inmates transferred to Spain reveals a Peruvian prison as a reservoir of persistent Mycobacterium tuberculosis MDR strains and mixed infections

By |2020-03-20T10:44:28+00:00March 20th, 2020|

Abstract It is relevant to evaluate MDR-tuberculosis in prisons and its impact on the global epidemiology of this disease. However, systematic molecular epidemiology programs in prisons are lacking. A health-screening program performed on arrival for inmates transferred from Peruvian prisons to Spain led to the diagnosis of five MDR-TB cases from one of the biggest [...]

Effect of the Xpert MTB/RIF on the detection of pulmonary tuberculosis cases and rifampicin resistance in Shanghai, China

By |2020-03-20T10:44:27+00:00March 20th, 2020|

Abstract Background Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) is an automated molecular test recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). This study evaluated the effect of Xpert implementation on the detection of pulmonary TB (PTB) and rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) cases in Shanghai, China. Methods Xpert was routinely implemented in 2018 for all presumptive PTB [...]

A landscape of genomic alterations at the root of a near-untreatable tuberculosis epidemic

By |2020-03-20T10:44:18+00:00March 20th, 2020|

Abstract Background Atypical Beijing genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are widespread in South Africa and have acquired resistance to up to 13 drugs on multiple occasions. It is puzzling that these strains have retained fitness and transmissibility despite the potential fitness cost associated with drug resistance mutations. Methods We conducted Illumina sequencing of 211 Beijing genotype M. tuberculosis isolates to [...]